All human beings must satisfy their basic needs. When they cannot do so, they compete with their fellow beings, get involved in conflicts, and sometimes exert violence. In many parts of the Himalayas, the potential for conflicts linked to the use of natural resources to satisfy basic needs is high because traditional livelihoods depend very much on agricultural land, pastures, and forests. A negative balance of demand and supply drives people to obtain resources forcefully wherever possible, which frequently leads to confrontation. Such conflicts can be mitigated by providing people with other sources of income and reducing their dependence on the limited local resource base. The people of Pangi Valley in the state of Himachal Pradesh, India, have experienced these processes and have now reached a stage where conflicts over natural resources are no longer a major concern. The availability of alternative economic opportunities has enabled people to free themselves from the constraints of traditional livelihoods based only on local natural resources.