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Title
Effects of -carotene and its cleavage products in primary pneumocyte type II cells
AuthorHaider, Cornelia ; Ferk, Franziska ; Bojaxhi, Ekramije ; Martano, Giuseppe ; Stutz, Hanno ; Bresgen, Nikolaus ; Knasmüller, Siegfried ; Alija, Avdulla ; Eckl, Peter M.
Published in
Antioxidants, Basel, 2017, Vol. 6, Issue 2, page 1-14
PublishedMDPI, 2017
LanguageEnglish
Document typeJournal Article
Keywords (EN)-carotene / -carotene cleavage products / apo-8′carotenal / dimethoxy-naphthoquinone / pneumocytes / Comet assay / micronuclei / apoptosis
ISSN2076-3921
URNurn:nbn:at:at-ubs:3-5641 Persistent Identifier (URN)
DOI10.3390/antiox6020037 
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 The work is publicly available
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Effects of -carotene and its cleavage products in primary pneumocyte type II cells [1.92 mb]
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Abstract (English)

-Carotene has been shown to increase the risk of developing lung cancer in smokers and asbestos workers in two large scale trails, the Beta-Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial (CARET) and the Alpha-Tocopherol Beta-carotene Cancer Prevention Trial (ATBC). Based on this observation, it was proposed that genotoxic oxidative breakdown products may cause this effect. In support of this assumption, increased levels of sister chromatid exchanges, micronuclei, and chromosomal aberrations were found in primary hepatocyte cultures treated with a mixture of cleavage products (CPs) and the major product apo-8′carotenal. However, because these findings cannot directly be transferred to the lung due to the exceptional biotransformation capacity of the liver, potential genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of -carotene under oxidative stress and its CPs were investigated in primary pneumocyte type II cells. The results indicate that increased concentrations of -carotene in the presence of the redox cycling quinone dimethoxynaphthoquinone (DMNQ) exhibit a cytotoxic potential, as evidenced by an increase of apoptotic cells and loss of cell density at concentrations > 10 M. On the other hand, the analysis of micronucleated cells gave no clear picture due to the cytotoxicity related reduction of mitotic cells. Last, although CPs induced significant levels of DNA strand breaks even at concentrations 1 M and 5 M, respectively, -carotene in the presence of DMNQ did not cause DNA damage. Instead, -carotene appeared to act as an antioxidant. These findings are in contrast with what was demonstrated for primary hepatocytes and may reflect different sensitivities to and different metabolism of -carotene in the two cell types.

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CC-BY-License (4.0)Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License