This article examines the problems of justice in relation to the realization of childrens rights. To do this, I will assume the human rights discourse as a common minimum framework, i.e. as the basis of moral obligations and as a reflection of a shared and sharable theory of justice. Firstly, I will analyze the specific problems affecting children as subjects of rights who differ from adult moral agents. Secondly, I will address the questions related to the most recurrent conflicts, namely, on the one hand, the clash between the right to parental autonomy and the childs rights, and, on the other hand, the appeal to collective rights and cultures rights instead of the persons rights to have or give up a culture. Finally, I will argue in favor of the role of the State as responsible and warrant of a minimum level of childrens well-being so that they reach adulthood as subjects who can make full use of their first generation rights.